The abdomen is the area between the diaphragm to the pelvic inlet and a hollow cavity that contains the digestive organs, including the small part of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines as well as the liver, pancreas, The spleen and gallbladder are in place and all of these organs are placed in a curtain called the peritoneum in the front half of the abdomen. On both sides of the vertebrae and on the dorsal half, the kidney and urinary tract are called the so-called peritoneal (retroperitoneal) organs.
Pelvis is a circular structure located at the bottom of the abdomen, connecting the lower extremities with the trunk. The pelvis extends from the top to the spine and from the bottom to the femur. The pelvis’s task is to transfer weight from the trunk to both lower limbs. Also, when sitting, the weight of the trunk is transferred directly to the seat via the pelvis.
The pelvis also contains a portion of the digestive (colon) and reproductive organs (ovary, uterus, salpingoids), and urinary organs (bladder, prostate), with important vessels and nerves passing through the trunk to the lower extremities.
The pelvis consists of three bones. The two bones are exactly the same, but symmetrical and semicircular in shape to form the bulk of this circular structure. The two bones approach the front and form a joint called the pubic symphysis. On the dorsal part of the pelvic ring is the sacrum and coccyx. The sacral bone attaches from the top to the fifth lumbar spine and an intervertebral disc is located between them. The sacrum bone is jointed on both sides with the iliac part of the anonymous bone. These two joints are called the Sacroiliac joints.
The acetabular cavity is a part of the pelvic bone that joints with the femoral head named hip joint. The hip joint connects to the lower limb. There are numerous muscles on the pelvic bones. These muscles cause specific movements in the thigh. Injury and dysfunction in each of these sections can cause pain as described below.